Types of buildings depend upon social functions and may be classified according to the role in the community. The types of buildings may be domestic, educational, office, industrial, recreational, etc. The common and necessary conditions are: (a) its suitability to use by human beings in general and its adaptability to particular Text A. Types of Buildings. human activities; (b) the stability and permanence of its constructions.
Speaking of the residential construction we must say that the apartment houses are mostly built to suit urban conditions. Group housing provides home for many families and is at once public and private. The techniques of construction or Text A. Types of Buildings. the methods by which structures are formed from particular materials are influenced not only by the availability and character of materials but also by the total technological development of society.
The evolution of techniques is conditioned by two factors: one is economic – the search for a maximum of stability and durability Text A. Types of Buildings. with a minimum of materials, labour and time; the other is expressive - the desire to produce meaningful form.
Large housing programms stimulate technological change in the building industry. Modular design has led to the standardization of elements, interchangeability of parts and increased possibilities for mass production, with resultant Text A. Types of Buildings. economies.
The high degree of mechanization and standardization is successfully achieved by using reinforced concrete blocks and units. Reinforced concrete homes are produced by a variety of construction methods. Various methods of constructing reinforced concrete houses involve extensive use of large sections manufactured in heavily mechanized factories and erected at Text A. Types of Buildings. the site.
to be classified according to – классифицироваться в согласовании о…
residential = domestic – жилой (дом)
educational - учебный
industrial - промышленный
office – административное здание
conditions - условия
common – общий, обыденный
suitability - пригодность
adaptability - приемлемость
in general – в общем, вообщем
particular – личный, определенный
human activity – деятельность человека
residential construction – жилищное строительство
apartment house – жилой многоквартирный дом
urban conditions – городские условия
technique Text A. Types of Buildings. of construction – способы строительства
to influence – оказывать влияние (на)
search - поиск
to be conditioned - быть обусловленным
housing programmes - план жилищного строительства
modular designing – модульное проектирование
interchangeability - взаимозаменяемость
a unit – строительный элемент, часть, деталь
recreational - применяемый для отдыха
Text B. Residential Buildings.
In technically developed countries the building industry, comprising skilled and unskilled workers in many trades, building engineers Text A. Types of Buildings. and architects, managerial staff and designers, employs a considerable proportion of the available labour force.
Building industry including residential, public and industrial construction holds a considerable place in the National Economy and is being carried on a large scale. It is the largest industry in the country. The problems Text A. Types of Buildings. of construction have grown into major, political issues in most countries.
Housing is among the factors affecting the level of living. The improvement of the housing represents a visible rise in the general level of living. In many countries residential construction has constituted at least 12 per cent and frequently Text A. Types of Buildings. more than 25 per cent of all capital formation.
The ever growing housing demands have brought to life new methods of construction with standardization, new levels of technological advance utilizing such techniques as off-site prefabrication, precasting, use of reinforced concrete panels and large-scale after-planning. At present, prefabricated structures and Text A. Types of Buildings. precast elements may be classified into two principal groups – for residential houses and industrial buildings.
Present-day designs for residential construction envisage all modern amenities for a dwelling, they advocate larger, better built and better equipped flats and houses. There is a marked improvement in the heating and ventilating Text A. Types of Buildings. systems as well as in hot-water supply, kitchen and sanitary fittings. A house which is a physical environment where a family develops is acquiring a new and modern look.
building industry – строительная индустрия
managerial staff – управленческий аппарат
industrial construction – промышленное строительство
housing – жилищное строительство
technological advance – технический прогресс
off-site prefabrication – фабричное Text A. Types of Buildings. изготовка
site planning – планирование работ на строительной площадке
prefabricated structures – сборные конструкции
present-day design – современное проектирование
kitchen and sanitary fittings – санитарное оборудование
office buildings – служебные строения
Задание 1. Переведите, обращая внимание на пассивные формы глагола.
1. The design of this structure was greatly influenced by the new method of construction. 2. New methods of building are Text A. Types of Buildings. much spoken about in this article. 3. New building materials are much worked at. 4. The assembly workers were followed by plumbers, electricians and painters. 5. The meeting was attended by many people. 6. The techniques of construction are influenced by the total technological development of society.
Задание 2. Обусловьте функцию инфинитива и переведите Text A. Types of Buildings..
1. To reduce the cost of building is our aim. 2. To reduce the cost of building we have to apply the most efficient construction method. 3. Many houses have been built to meet the needs of working people. 4. It will take many years to complete the job. 5. The most important building materials Text A. Types of Buildings. are considered to be structural steel and concrete. 6. These devices are considered to be very effective. 7. This method was believed to be the most economical. 8. The new school was reported to have been put into operation.
Text A. Water Supply.
During all the ages large cities Text A. Types of Buildings. have been concerned with their water supply. Even the important ancient cities soon found that the local sources of supply-shallow wells, springs and brooks – were inadequate to meet the very modest sanitary demands of the day, and the inhabitans were constrained to build aqueducts which would bring water Text A. Types of Buildings. from distant sources. It cannot be said, however, that such supply systems could compare with modern types, for only a few of the wealthier citizens had private outlets in their homes or gardens, and most citizens carried water in vessels to their homes from a few fountains or public Text A. Types of Buildings. outlets. The medieval cities were smaller than the ancient cities and public water supplies were practically nonexistent.
It was in the seventeenth century that the first experiments were мейд with cast iron pipes. They were successful, but it was not until the middle of the eighteenth century that cast iron Text A. Types of Buildings. pipes were cheap enough for wide use. The durability of cast iron and its freedom from breaks and leakages soon мейд its use almost universal, although steel and other materials were also used.
This forward stride, together with the development of pumping methods, мейд it economically possible for Text A. Types of Buildings. all but the smallest villages to obtain water supplies and to deliver the water into the homes of the citizens.
Although some cities were able to collect safe water from uninhabited regions and thereby reduce water-borne disease to a low level, many others found that their supplies Text A. Types of Buildings. were dangerously polluted and that the danger was increasing as population increased upon watersheds .
Accordingly treatment methods were developed that, when properly applied, have eliminated the hazard.
concern – иметь отношение
local source – местный источник
shallow wells – мелководные колодцы
spring – источник ,источник
brook – ручей
adequate – достаточный
demand – требование
outlet – сток, выходная труба
vessel – сосуд
medieval – средневековый
public – публичный
meet Text A. Types of Buildings. demads (requirements , needs) – удовлетворять (отвечать) требованиям
cast iron – чугун
cheap – дешевенький
durable – крепкий, долговременный
durability – крепкость, долговечность
freedom – свобода
break – трещинка, поломка
leakage – утечка, протекание
pump – насос
deliver – доставлять
safe – неопасный
reduce – снижать
water-borne diseases – заразные заболевания
danger – опасность
than – чем
but – но, не считая
although – хотя
during – в течение, во время
Text B. Pipes.
The idea of carrying water through a pipe is very old Text A. Types of Buildings., and the earliest pipes, мейд from hollow tree trunks, suggest the probable origin of this invention. Tree trunk pipes were in use for many centuries, indeed until the invention of the comparatively modern iron and steel tubing, wood was the only suitable material for this purpose.
Thousands of elms were Text A. Types of Buildings. cut and hollowed to provide pipes for water from the New River Canal which was мейд at the beginning of the seventeenth century to bring water to London, and quite recently, “trunk pipes” in a remarkably good state of preservation have been dug up during excavations.
The large-scale Text A. Types of Buildings. manufacture of iron and steel pipes as well as of pottery and other materials, has introduced a new era during which water and gas are brought to every house through pipes, while other pipes take away waste water.
The ground under big cities is a vast network of conduits Text A. Types of Buildings. of all kinds, carrying water, gas and telephone cables to homes and factories.
The most astonishing development of transport by pipe has been in connection with oil and gas. Thousands of wiles of pipe-line are laid beneath the ground to bring crude oil from oil fields to the refineries.
Notes Text A. Types of Buildings.:
pipe – труба as well as – также как и
tree trunk – древесный ствол while – пока, в то время как
origin – источник, начало beneath – под, ниже
suitable – подходящий owing to – благодаря, из-за
cut (cut) – вырубать at least – само мало
network – сеть
conduit – трубопровод
crude oil – неочищенная нефть
refinery – очищающий завод
Text C. Liquid Waste Effluent Installation Text A. Types of Buildings..
The present wastewater system within the city consists of 20 miles of force mains, 85 miles of gravity sewer, 50 pumping stations, and 2 sewage treatment plants.
Both plants have been discharging effluent into Lake Lulu and Lake Conine.
The master pumping station has a capacity of 10mgh and the force main consists of Text A. Types of Buildings. five miles of 30’’ iron pipe with hydrogen peroxide injection.
The project is an activated sludge treatment facility with a capacity of 5 mgh, with effluent disposal by spray irrigation using electric self-propelled sprinkler system units.
Raw wastewater will enter the plant by the 30’’ force main and empty into Text A. Types of Buildings. the aerated grit chamber for grit removal and odor control.
The wastewater will then flow by gravity through the comminutors and into a 36’’ pipe.
There it will mix with return activated sludge from the clarifies and split equally into aeration basins.
force main – напорная магистраль
effluent – очищенная сточная вода
raw wastewater Text A. Types of Buildings. – неочищенная сточная вода
comminutor – измельчитель
activated sludge – активный ил
sprinkler – спринклер
grit – большой песок
mgh – мегагаллонов в час
Text A. Sewerage.
Man’s sewerage practice has been known from ancient times. Explorations revealed sewers in Babylon dating from the 7-th century before our era. Remains of sanitary sewers are to be found in the ruins Text A. Types of Buildings. of the prehistoric cities of Crete and the ancient cities of Assyria. Rome also had sewers, but they were primarily drains to carry away storm water. It was practice to deposit all sorts of refuse in the street gutters and accordingly the storm sewers also carried much organic matter Text A. Types of Buildings. at times. Sewerage was practically unknown during the middle ages, and not until modern times the construction of sewers was resumed. At first, however, they were storm sewers not designed to carry domestic sewage.
The water courses in or near towns apparently were used as convenient places of Text A. Types of Buildings. refuse disposal. The offensive and dangerous materials were discharged into streams where they decomposed to cause discomfort and danger to rural populations or to cities located downstreams. Most cities, therefore, soon found it necessary to treat the sewage before releasing it.
The history of the progress of sanitation in Text A. Types of Buildings. London probably shows a typical picture of what took place quite generally about the middle of 19-th century in the largest cities of Great Britain and the United States. Sanitation was little considered and execution of sewage work was impossible. There were hundreds of streets in London that had no sewers Text A. Types of Buildings.. All through London’s history until modern time, the question of water supply continued to be a problem. In the 18-th century even with the appearance of larger water companies the water supply was far from being satisfactory. Water taken from the river Thames was offensive to Text A. Types of Buildings. the sight as the intake was only three yards from the outlet of a great sewer. But the feeling that public health depends largely upon sewerage was the deciding factor in the growing recognition of good sewerage system. In 1885 after two outbreaks of cholera British Parliament passed an act which Text A. Types of Buildings. laid the basis for the sanitation of London. On the continent a marked progress in sewerage began in 1842 when a severe fire destroyed the old part of Hamburg. It was decided to rebuild this part according to the modern ideas of convenience. As a result Hamburg was the first Text A. Types of Buildings. city which had a compete systematic sewerage system throughout built according to modern ideas.
sewerage - сточная канава
sewage - сточные воды
exploration - исследование
reveal- найти, открыть
primarily - в главном, сначало
drain - сток
deposit – осаждать(ся), осадок
refuse – отходы, отбросы
gutter – канализация, желоб
resume – возобновлять, продолжать
storm sewage – ливневая вода
apparently – непременно
disposal – удаление, устранение
offensive – противный, имеющий запах
discharge – выпускать, спускать
cause Text A. Types of Buildings. – причинять, причина
treat – обрабатывать
release – выпускать, выпуск
execution – выполнение
intake – входной канал
depend on (upon) – зависеть
outbreak – вспышка
considerable – значимый
destroy – разрушать
purity – чистота
resources – припасы
amount – количество
confine – ограничивать
safeguard – охранять
pollution – загрязнение
according to – согласно, в согласовании
a number of – ряд
until – до, до того времени пока
therefore – потому, как следует
through – через, через
both… and – как… так и
same – тот же самый
Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Where Text A. Types of Buildings. are the ruins of prehistoric sanitary sewers to be found? 2. Did Rome have sewers? 3.What were drains used for? 4. Was sewerage practically known in Middle Ages? 5. Where were the offensive and dangerous materials discharged? 6. Was there any sewage system in medieval cities? 7.What did most cities decide to treat Text A. Types of Buildings.? 8. Why was it necessary to treat the sewage before discharging it?
Задание 2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функцию “that”
1. That system was built some years ago. 2. Water that is absolutely pure is not found in nature. 3. The problems of good sanitation is closely connected with that of protecting the purity Text A. Types of Buildings. of natural water supply. 4. That this method of controlling waste water produced good results is well known. 5. It was found that the local sources of water supply were inadequate to meet the sanitary requirements. 6. Some of the suspended matter is so small that its removal by sedimentation is impracticable Text A. Types of Buildings.. 7. The system of conduits that conveys water is known as the distribution system.
Задание 3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.
1. We can live without food for several weeks. 2. These pipes must be protected against corrosion. 3. Water can be obtained from different natural sources on the earth. 4. Sewage must Text A. Types of Buildings. be treated prior to disposal. 5. Students may leave the lab if the work is done. 6. Quite often pipelines must be built over long distances to obtain water supplies.
Задание 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на формы с окончанием “ing”.
1. Most cities soon found it necessary to treat the sewage before Text A. Types of Buildings. releasing.
2. The important effects of water works and sewerage upon cities are not confined to the safeguarding of health. 3. Street cleaning and flushing are possible. 4. Swimming pools and other recreational uses of water are commonplace. 5. Many cities had a difficultly in carrying away their waste waters . 6. Ancient cities deposited their refuse Text A. Types of Buildings. into the street gutters instead of constructing sewers for the removal of wastes. 7. Improving the methods of water treatment we improve the water quality. 8. The main function of water supply systems is to supply the population with safe water for drinking.
Text B. Don’t Forget Text A. Types of Buildings. Fire Protection.
In addition to providing supply for general service , most public systems provide supply for another very important service : fire protection. Although the volume of water required for fire fighting, in comparison to that used for general service during the course of a year normally insignificant, the rate at Text A. Types of Buildings. which water must by supplied, when needed is quite substantial. Depending on the fire hazards within a particular community, fire flow requirements may vary from 500 gpm to over 12000 gpm. As a general rule, the smaller the community, the greater the impact of fire capacity requirements on the overall system capacity Text A. Types of Buildings. required. However, in a larger community where bigger mains are required to meet general service demands, the additional capacity required for fire flow is not as significant. It should also be noted that, in general, fire flow requirements are more severe in an industrially or commercially-oriented Text A. Types of Buildings. community than in a residential community. Industrial and commercial buildings are generally more of a fire hazard than residential buildings and therefore more water is required for control of fire.
gpm – галлонов за минуту
Text C. Purification of Water.
If the water of a source doesn’t meet specified Text A. Types of Buildings. requirements, it is subjected to purification and treatment. Water is purified in specially constructed purification plants. The water purification methods are as follows: clarification, serving to reduce turbidity, – to disinfection eliminate pathogenic bacteria softening serving to reduce the content of salts etc.
Clarification of water, i.e. removal of suspended Text A. Types of Buildings. substances is attained by the processes of sedimentation and filtration. Water is treated by sedimentation in special sedimentation tanks through which the treated water flows at a rate of 1-2 mm/sec. During the time the treated water remains in the basin (from 9 to 18 hr) fine particles settle on the bottom Text A. Types of Buildings. of the sedimentation tank. A more thorough treatment is attained by adding chemical substances to the treated water. These substances form flocs which accumulate the suspended particles and rapidly settle on the bottom of the sedimentation tank. At the outlet of the sedimentation bank water still contains a certain Text A. Types of Buildings. amount of fine suspended matter and drinking water is therefore subjected to additional filtration.
Text A. Heat.
Heat will flow whenever there is a difference in temperature between two bodies or between two parts of the same body. Today anyone knows that heat is a from of transmission Text A. Types of Buildings. of energy.
The transfer of heat from one body to another is known as heat exchange or heat transfer. Heat always flows from a more heated to a less heated body and therefore heat exchange is a natural process. It was our great scientist and poet Lomonosov who Text A. Types of Buildings. first stated that heat phenomena were due to the motion of molecules. The Russian Academician I. B. Rikhman first suggested to carry out the experiments in the field of heat transfer.
There are three principal modes of heat transfer: by conduction, convection and radiation.
Conduction is a process of transference of Text A. Types of Buildings. heat by which the heat is passed from particle to particle throughout the volume of body without any apparent movement occuring in the body. Convection is heat transfer performed by particles of gas, vapour or liquid moving in space. There are two kinds of convection: natural Text A. Types of Buildings. convection and forced convection, when heat transfer can be produced by the use of a fan or other mechanical device for stirring and mixing the warmer and cooler parts of the fluid. Radiation is heat transfer by thermal radiation.
The transfer of heat by the process of radiation does not require the Text A. Types of Buildings. use of material media. In practice heat may be transferred by two or even all three modes simultaneously. For example, in a steam boiler it is important that the heat be transferred from the glowing surface of the burning fuel to the heating surface of the boiler Text A. Types of Buildings.. This process is performed by means of radiation. At the same time this surface receives heat from flue gases by convection while the heat in the wall itself, which forms a heating surface, spreads by conduction.
conduction – проводимость
convection – конвекция
to depend on (upon) – зависеть от
flue gases – топочные газы
fuel Text A. Types of Buildings. – горючее
heat – тепло
to heat – нагревать
to transfer – передавать
heat transfer – теплопередача
heat exchange – термообмен
heating surface – поверхность нагрева
liquid – жидкость
motion – движение
particle – частичка
radiation – излучение
steam – boiler – паровой котел
thermal – тепловой, термический
vapour – пар, водяные пары
Text B. Heat Transfer
Heat is a form of energy transferred from one body to another because of a temperature difference. When two bodies at Text A. Types of Buildings. different temperature are brought into contact, the warmer body will be cooled and the colder body will be warmed. In this case heat flows from the hot body to the cold body by conduction. The molecules of the hot body being at a higher temperature have a higher level Text A. Types of Buildings. of kinetic energy than the molecules of the cold body.
This energy is transferred through the molecules of the cold body.
Heat may also be transferred from one body to another through space by means of radiation. The molecules of any substance of high temperature emit waves of energy which Text A. Types of Buildings. travel through the air with the speed of light. They differ from light waves only in their wave lengths. Heat may be transferred from one body to another be means of convection. For instance, heat is transferred by convection from the hot metal of a stove to a stream of moving Text A. Types of Buildings. air the temperature of which is increased. The warm air is then transported to a room in which the moving warm air transfers heat to the objects in the room by conduction.
Text C. Quality of water.
Impurities in water. Water is never found pure in nature. Rainwater falling Text A. Types of Buildings. to the earth contains dust, dissolved' oxygen, carbon dioxide and other gases taken from the air.
At the ground surface it takes up silt and other inorganic matter. The additional, impurities depend upon the composition of the ground over which and through which it flows after falling on earth Text A. Types of Buildings..
Turbidity. A water is turbid when it contains material in suspension. It is generally caused by microscopic organisms, silt or clay. The turbidity of a stream may vary considerably during the year. Turbidity is the greatest during flood periods. Lake waters are clearer than stream Text A. Types of Buildings. waters, and streams in dry weather are clearer than streams in flood periods.
Ground waters are clear because the turbidity has filtered out by slow movement through the soil.
Determination of turbidity is important in the operation of a water treatment plant. Changes in turbidity require adjustment in the treatment process so Text A. Types of Buildings. that clear water may produced.
Colour. Colour is caused by material in solution or colloidal condition. It is generally caused by dyes derived from decomposing vegetation, but sometimes it is caused by iron and manganese that is combined with organic matter or by industrial processes.
Tastes and odours Text A. Types of Buildings.. Tastes and odours usually occur together. They are caused by dissolved gases and decomposing organic matter. A satisfactory
drinking water should be pratically tasteless and odourless.