Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law

I. Read and translate the text.

The right to due process of law protects personal freedom. An accused person has the right to phone his lawyer or relatives and tell them about his arrest. Besides the right to a lawyer, he also has the right to a jury, the Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law right to know his charges, the right to be brought before a magistrate shortly after the arrest, the right to have bail and to call witnesses for the defence. He has the right to food, medical care and proper treatment. Police officers have no right to use force against the detained person Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law. The accused cannot be tried twice for the same offence and punished in a cruel or unusual way.

II. Questions to be answered

1. What is the importance of the right to a due process of law?

2. What are the essential rights of an accused person?

Text 7. Parties to the Crime

I Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law. Read and translate the text.

Those who commit a crime are called principals.

Those who advise or order the principal to commit a crime are called accessories.

Those who participate in the commission of a crime are called accomplices.

A person who helps the offender before Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law the commission of a crime is an accessory before the fact.

A person who helps the offender after the commission of a crime is an accessory after the fact.

An accomplice is charged with the same offence as the principal offender.


II. Questions to be answered.

1. What offenders are called Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law principals?

2. What is the role of accessories?

3. What is the function of accomplices?

4. What is the difference between an accessory before the fact and an accessory after the fact?

5. Are an accomplice and the principal offender charged differently?

Text 8. Criminal Procedure

I. Read and translate the text.

Criminal procedure is a set Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law of rules that govern the administration of justice. The goal of criminal procedure is to enforce the constitutional rights of suspects and defendants.

Criminal procedure protects suspects from unreasonable searches and arrests and guarantees the right to due process of law (the right to a jury, to Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law a lawyer, to a fair trial, the right against self-incrimination, the right to a plea bargain, and others).

II. Questions to be answered.

1. What is criminal procedure?

2. What is the aim of criminal procedure?

3. Who does criminal procedure protect and what does it guarantee?

Text 9. Trial

I. Read and Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law translate the text.

A trial is the cornerstone of justice. There are 2 parties to a trial: the defence and the prosecution. Each party has a lawyer.

There is a difference in criminal proceedings between countries with a common law legal system (the Anglo-Saxon legal system) and countries with a civil Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law law legal system (the continental, or European legal system).

In a common law legal system, the accused is considered innocent until his guilt is proved. In the European legal system, on the contrary, the accused is considered guilty until his innocence is proved.

The role of the judge Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law in these 2 systems is different, too. In the Anglo-American legal procedure the judge is an impartial arbiter between 2 opponents, and the accused is convicted by the public prosecutor. In the European criminal procedure, the judge's role is to convict the accused.

Neither of the 2 systems is Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law perfect. Yet, American lawyers believe that their legal system has an advantage, since it protects the accused from judges and from illegal prosecution by the government.


II. Questions to be answered.

1. What is the importance of trial?

2. How many parties are there to a trial?

3. Is there a difference in criminal Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law proceedings between countries with a common law legal system and countries with a civil law legal system?

4. What does the difference consist in?

5. Is any of the two approaches perfect?

6. Why do American lawyers think that their approach has an advantage?

Lesson 5 The Study of Crime and Criminals

Text 1. Criminology

I Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law. Read and translate the text.

Criminology is the study of crime. It studies the causes of crime and the principles of crime control. Criminology appeared in the late 18th century when society began to show interest in the treatment of criminals.

Criminology uses different methods and Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law techniques, such as collection and interpretation of statistics, case study and sociological research.

Criminology has a great practical value. The findings of criminology are used in the work of lawyers, judges, legislators and prison officials. Criminology focuses on the person of the criminal and helps to understand the nature of criminals better Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law. It is also concerned with the study of victims of crime which is called victimology.

II. Questions to be answered.

1. What is criminology and what does it study?

2. When did criminology appear?

3. What methods and techniques are used in criminology?

4. Where are the findings of criminology used?

5. Does criminology Text 6. The Right to Due Process of Law фокус only on the criminal?


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