Text 4 « Computerization»

1. Read the text. a) Among the statements find the ones that are not mentioned in the text. b) Put the remaining statements in the correct order.(Прочитайте текст. a) Изберите из данных утверждений те, которые не упоминались в тексте. b) Поставьте оставшиеся утверждения в правильном порядке.)

1. In North America alone nearly Text 4 « Computerization» 90 percent of the domestic population use the Internet regularly.

2. Around 40% of the world population has an internet connection today.

3. First computers were huge, expensive and difficult to use.

4. Over 1 billion Web sites exist on the World Wide Web and thousands of new Web sites are created every Text 4 « Computerization» day

5. The invention of ARPANET gave rise to the World Wide Web in 1991.

6. Digital computers of today are light, inexpensive and multifunctional.

7. Computerization is about the integration of IT devices and computerized systems into many areas of modern life.

8. The first two nodes that formed the ARPANET were UCLA (University of California Text 4 « Computerization», Los Angeles) and the Stanford Research Institute, followed shortly thereafter by the University of Utah.

COMPUTERIZATION

‘‘Computerization’’ refers to worldwide technology integration and adoption of computers and other electronic IT devices, along with the Internet, to support the activities that people do in the course of their daily Text 4 « Computerization» lives. A person who (use) a computer online exemplifies computerization, as do millions of other people who use any type of IT device. Thus, computerization generally has to do with the integration of IT devices and computerized systems into communications, transportation, manufacturing, military weaponry, entertainment systems, and virtually all other technological areas Text 4 « Computerization» of modern life.

The process of computerization (begin) in the late 1940s with the invention of modern computers to provide missile guidance systems (системы наведения ракет) for the US military. However, it (be) not until 1969 with the invention of the Advanced Research Project Agency Network (ARPANET) that computerization Text 4 « Computerization» as we now understand it really began to expand. This is because ARPANET (pioneer) packet switching technology, which laid the foundation for the Internet in 1983, its commercialization in 1988, and finally the World Wide Web in 1991. Over this period of time, extending half a century, what began as a small Text 4 « Computerization» number of mainframe computers evolved into personal computers (PCs) that have been widely adopted for academic, government, business, nonprofit organization, and individual user purposes.

Today approximately 2 billion computers (exist) on the Earth, with over 3 billion individual users of the Internet. The adoption of computers and other IT devices Text 4 « Computerization» enhances Internet usage, and vice versa. High-speed (broadband) Internet connectivity expansion also drives computer, IT, and Internet technology adoption and utilization by individuals and organizations throughout the world. Utilization of the Internet (expand) nearly 275 % from 2000 to 2008. In 2015 in North America alone approximately 88 %t of the domestic population (314 million Text 4 « Computerization» out of 357 million people) used the Internet regularly. North America represents approximately 9.3 % of worldwide Internet users. And there (be) currently over 1 billion Web sites existing on the World Wide Web, with thousands of new Web sites created every day.

Growth of computer and IT device users and the Text 4 « Computerization» Internet also stems from how much easier these technologies are to use. Long gone are the days in which a user (need) to understand programming in order to use computers. Originally, computers were built with bulky vacuum tubes and comparatively crude electronic components by today’s standards. Consequently, these ‘‘mainframe’’ machines with Text 4 « Computerization» their computer punch-card readers and their printing components would literally take up very large or several rooms within a building. Each mainframe computer cost millions of dollars.

Today digital computers, IT devices, and plug-in media/components (be) increasingly smaller, portable, and much more affordable. They Text 4 « Computerization» (have) faster processing speeds, greater memory, and increasingly more built-in functions. For example, Apple’s iPhone and iPod touch devices are media players that also have Internet browsing and communication abilities. Several manufacturers (integrate) personal digital assistant (PDA) and cellular phone capabilities, and it is difficult to purchase a Text 4 « Computerization» cell phone without a built-in digital camera.

Grammar Фокус

2. Put the highlighted verbs in the correct form.(Поставьте выделенные глаголы в правильной временной форме)

3. Write in words all the dates and numbers from the text. (Запишите словами все даты и числа из текста)

4. a. Consulting the text, form Text 4 « Computerization» words from the given ones with the help of the suffixes –ize, -ify, -ation, -ment, -ity, -ive, -ic, -al, –able.(Обращаясь к тексту, образуйте однокоренные слова при помощи суффиксов).

digit - ………… technology - ……………….

example - ……………. invent - ………………..

commercial - …………. found - ……………..

integrate - ………….. connect - …………..

adopt - …………. expand - ……………..

communicate - ………….. utilize - ………………..

transport - ……………… afford - ………….…..

computer - …… entertain - ……………..

b. Which of these Text 4 « Computerization» suffixes are used to form nouns, verbs, adjectives?(Какие из суффиксов употребляются для образования существительных, глаголов, прилагательных?)

c. Translate the formed words without dictionary(Переведите образованные слова без словаря).

Text 5 « APRANET».

Read the texts and answer the questions below (Прочитайте тексты и ответьте на вопросы)

APRANET

The precursor to the Internet, ARPANET was Text 4 « Computerization» a large wide-area network created by the United States Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA). Established in 1969, ARPANET served as a testbed for new networking technologies, linking many universities and research centers. The first two nodes that formed the ARPANET were UCLA and the Stanford Research Institute Text 4 « Computerization», followed shortly thereafter by the University of Utah.


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