Text 3 (C). Personal Computers

The first integrated circuit for computers was developed in 1958. Only in 1971 was the microprocessor that contained all the basic elements of a computer on a single chip introduced, followed by desktop computers in the mid-1970s.

Early computers were built as single-purpose machines, that is, they were built for Text 3 (C). Personal Computers performing a specific task. The first general-purpose ENIAC built in 1946 was programmable, but changing a program required rewiring¹ the machine!

The micromini computers of the 1970s and most in the 1980s followed the same pattern² and required extensive knowledge of common codes and function keys.

Apple Computer’s Macintosh Text 3 (C). Personal Computers revolutionized the personal computer industry with a new machine. The user no longer has to memorize an operating system command for loading a program or file. Icons or small graphic images that can be selected with a mouse or other pointing device represent programs, functions, and files.

NOTES Text 3 (C). Personal Computers: ¹ rewiring – перепрошивать;

² followed the same pattern – следовали тому же эталону

Индивидуальные компы.

1-ая печатная плата для компов была разработана в 1958 г. Исключительно в 1971 году процессор, который содержал все главные элементы компьютера на одном чипе, введен с следующими настольными компьютерами посреди 1970-х годов.

Ранешние компы были построены в качестве специализированных машин Text 3 (C). Personal Computers, другими словами, они были построены для выполнения определенной задачки. 1-ый компьютер общего предназначения ENIAC, построенный в 1946 году был программируемым, но изменение программки просит прошивки машины!

Микро мини компы 1970-х годов и больше всего в 1980-е годы следовали по тому же эталону и требуют широких познаний общих Text 3 (C). Personal Computers кодов и многофункциональных кнопок.

Макинтош от Apple компьютера произвела революцию в промышленности индивидуальных компов с новейшей машиной. Юзеру больше не надо запоминать команду операционной системы для загрузки программки либо файла. Значки либо мелкие графические изображения, которые могут быть выбраны при помощи мыши либо другого указывающего устройства, представляют собой программки Text 3 (C). Personal Computers, функции и файлы.

Text 3 (D). Part of Computer System

In order to use computers effectively to solve problems computer systems are devised. Computer systems may be discussed in two parts.

The first part is hardware – the physical, electronic, and electromechanical devices that are thought of and recognized as “computers”. The hardware consists of Text 3 (C). Personal Computers the Central Processing Unit (CPU), input devices and output devices. The CPU is мейд up of a processor and a main memory, or main store. The processor carries out, or executes, instructions in the program. The main memory stores input data and the program needed by the processor Text 3 (C). Personal Computers. The main memory also holds output data, or the results of processing.

Input devices are used to provide data for the CPU. The keyboard is a common data input device. By using a keyboard, a user can enter data directly into the computer system. Data is sometimes entered Text 3 (C). Personal Computers on cards or it is often input from a mass storage device, such as magnetic tape or magnetic disk. A mass storage device has a much larger capacity than main memory. That is, it can store more data. The tapes or disks are read by an input device Text 3 (C). Personal Computers called a tape drive or a disk drive.

Output devices receive data from the CPU. The Visual Display Unit (VDU) and printer are common output devices. The VDU is similar to a TV screen. The printer produces printed output on paper. Both the VDU and printer present output data for immediate Text 3 (C). Personal Computers use. Sometimes, the output data is transmitted along a telephone line to another computer. Output data can also be stored for future use on a mass storage device, such as magnetic tapes or disks.

Input and output devices as well as mass storage devices are collectively called Text 3 (C). Personal Computers peripherals.

The second part is software – programs that control and coordinate the activities of the computer hardware and that direct data processing.

For the computer system to operate, computer programs are required. A computer program is a set of instructions for the CPU. These instructions tell the CPU where to Text 3 (C). Personal Computers find the input data in the system. The CPU is also instructed how to process the data and where to put the results. Programs are not hardware, as they have no electrical or mechanical components. They can be easily changed according to the user’s needs.

Computer software can be divided Text 3 (C). Personal Computers into two very broad categories – system software and application software.