4. При сопоставлении нередко употребляется альянс than, который переводится словом “ чем” либо совершенно не переводится.
This element is more difficult than the element you performed at the last competitions.
Этот элемент сложнее того, который вы делали на прошедших соревнованиях.
(Степени сопоставления наречий)
Наречия, в главном, вида деяния и степени, как и Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава прилагательные имеют две степени сопоставления. Наречия, совпадающие по форме с прилагательными, так же как и прилагательные, принимают окончание – er в сравнительной степени и – est в потрясающей степени, при этом в отличие от прилагательных перед наречием в потрясающей степени артикль не ставится:
|lateпоздно early рано hardусердно||later позже Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава earlier ранее harderусерднее||latestпозднеевсего earliestранее всего hardestусерднее всего|
Многие наречия образуются от прилагательных путемдобавления суффикса ly: warm – warmlynice – nicely
Теплый – тепло прекрасный – прекрасно
Многосложные наречия и большая часть двусложных (с суффиксом - ly) образуют степени сопоставления с помощью слов more (для сравнительной степени) и most (для потрясающей):
|comfortably more comfortably most comfortably slowly Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава more slowly most slowly||комфортно более комфортно удобнее всего медлительно медлительнее медлительнее всего|
Некие наречия образуют степени сопоставления от различных основ.
|well отлично badly плохо much много little не достаточно||better лучше worse ужаснее more больше less меньше||best лучшевсего worst ужаснее всего mоst больше всего least Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава меньше всего|
Наречия употребляются в таких же сравнительных конструкциях, как и прилагательные.
I can’t run as fast as he can / I can’t run as fast as him.
Я не могу бежать так стремительно, как он.
He didn’t perform as well at the competitions as he had hoped. / He Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава performed
not so well at the competitions as he had hoped. Он не выступил на соревнованиях так отлично, как возлагал надежды.
Ex. 1. Choose the proper adjectives or adverbs and translate the sentences:
Model: Ann speaks English…… / good, well.
Ann speaks English well.
1. Nick performed … at the previous tournament / bad, badly Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава.
2. Nick demonstrated a … performance at the previous tournament /bad,badly.
3. The team played … the last game / terrible, terribly.
4. It was a really … game / terrible, terribly.
5. Pete plays tennis… / good, well.
6. Pete is a … tennis player / good, well.
7. Please, don’t walk so … I’m tired / quick, quickly.
8. This player Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава is very … and agile / quick, quickly.
9. One should think … while playing chess / careful, carefully.
10. Be … while crossing the street / careful, carefully.
Ex. 2. Read and translate these sentences:
1. This T- shirt is too small. I need a larger one.
2. I don’t play tennis much now. I used to play Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава more often.
3. She will certainly win at the championship. She works harder than her team-mates.
4. John isn’t as good at physical education as Helen.
5. His injury was much more serious than the coach at first had thought.
6. The more a gymnast practises a new element the better Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава he’ll perform it.
7. This exerciser is almost twice as expensive as the one we bought last year.
8. I’ve decided to retire from competitions. It’s the most difficult decision I’ve ever мейд.
9. Our football team played really badly in the qualifying tournament. We Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава played worst of all other teams.
10. He is a very good forward. He is the best forward of the World Football Championship.
Ex. 3. Group the words into three columns A, B, C.
1.cold; 2. important; 3. bad; 4. slow; 5. simple; 6. good; 7. useful; 8. far; 9. much; 10. easy; 11. comfortable; 12. ancient; 13. round; 14. expressive; 15. little; 16. widely; 17. hard; 18. low. 19. certainly Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава; 20. friendly.
|er / est||more / most||irregular form|
Ex. 4. Compare the things and people.
a) of equal size and quality
Model: The Russian language is difficult. And Belarusian?
The Belarusian language is as difficult as Russian.
1. Jack is very athletic. And Bob?
2. Football is very popular with Belarusian Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава teenagers. And hockey?
3. Jogging is very good for health. And walking?
4. Our team’s performance was very successful at the last championship.
And your team’s?
5. His coach is very qualified. And yours?
6. Synchronized swimming is very spectacular. And rhythmic gymnastics?
7. John did well in the exam. And Ann Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава?
8. The coach can rely on Mary. She is very responsible. And Kate?
9. Anatomy is a difficult discipline. And biochemistry?
10. These girls are top-class gymnasts. Sue is very flexible. And Mary?
b) of different size and quality
Model: The USA is large. And Great Britain?
Great Britain isn’t as large Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава as the USA.
The USA is larger than Great Britain.
1. Soccer is very popular in Great Britain. And rugby?
2. Jack is very good at team sports. And John?
3. Wembley stadium is very modern. And Dynamo stadium?
4. The Olympic Centre Raubichi is quite far from Minsk. And Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава Staiki?
5. Helen is very nervous before the interview. And George?
6. Jack is a slow forward. And Ronald?
7. The examination in exercise physiology was easy enough. And in sports psychology?
8. English is a useful language if your are in спорт. And Italian?
9. Some years ago David was a good footballer. And at Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава present?
10. A Porsche is an expensive car. And a Fiat?
Lesson 2. Build your vocabulary
Task 1. Look at the ways adjectives and adverbs can be мейд and translate
the words marked with “*”:
|to depend зависеть||independence независимость||independent независящий||independently независимо|
|to succeed достигнуть фуррора||success*||successful*||successfully Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава*|
|importance значение, значимость||important *||importantly *|
Фокус on Reading
Step 1. Word Power
Ex. 1. Read the following international words . Give their Russian equivalents:
|promotion priority economy resource centre analogue||infrastructure professional velodrome budget adaptation social||football gymnastics hockey tennis volleyball Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава handball|
Ex. 2. Read the words paying attention to the sounds
|[ju:] usual venue numerous human use||[u:] group revolution Belarusian||[ ] struggle club budget public such multi adult|
Ex. 3. Learn the key words and word combinations to the topic “Sports in
the Republic of Belarus”. Translate the sentences.
1. achievement Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава n достижение
sporting achievements спортивныедостижения
e.g. International sporting achievements of Belarusian athletes are acknowledged
all over the world.
4. checkers n шашки
5. equestrian спорт n конныйспорт
9. aerialsnакробатическиепрыжки (фристайл)
multi-sport универсальная арена
11. spectator n зритель
e.g. Minsk-Arena includes a multi-sport and entertainment arena for 15,000
12. venuen место (проведения соревнований)
e.g. Minsk Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава-Arena is one of the main venues for the 2014 World Ice-Hockey
13. recognition n признание
e.g. Belarusian sports facilities have won recognition of both Belarusian and
14. recordn 1) рекорд
e.g. Belarus has an excellent record at the Olympic Games.
15. condition n состояние
physical condition физическаяформа
to keep physical condition поддерживатьфизическуюформу
e.g Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава. Belarusian people try to keep themselves in good physical condition.
Step 2. Reading Practice
Task 1. Read the text for detail and find the answers to the questions:
1. What are the priorities for the present-day Belarus?
2. What is the Belarusian Ministry for Sports and Tourism responsible for?
3. What sports and games Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава are mostly played in Belarus?
4. What sports facilities are there in Belarus?
5. Where are the funds for promoting sports in Belarus taken?
6. What is the role of the Belarusian government in promoting sports for the disabled?
7. What record does Belarus have at the Olympic Games?
Text 3 A. Sports Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава in the Republic of Belarus
Promotion of healthy lifestyle and sports has become one of the priorities for the present-day Belarus. It is reflected in the development of sports infrastructure, particularly in small and medium-size towns, creation of world-class training facilities and international sporting achievements of Belarusian athletes Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава.
The Ministry for Sports and Tourism is responsible for sports and physical education in the country. They form an independent branch of economy with its management structure, institutions, technical and human resources.
Over 130 sports are played in Belarus. The most popular are: track-and-field athletics, football, gymnastics Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава, skiing, hockey, tennis, fencing, wrestling, volleyball, handball, swimming, chess and checkers.
Belarus has some extensive training facilities both for general public and professional athletes. They include 243 stadiums, 250 swimming-pools, 5140 gymnasiums, 46 athletic centres, 20 ice-rinks, etc. Such sports facility as the Raubichi Centre near Minsk is considered to be one of the Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава best biathlon centres in the world. Minsk-Arena is a newly built multi-use indoor facility in Minsk that has no analogues in Europe. It includes a multi-sport and entertainment arena for 15,000 spectators, a skating stadium and a velodrome. It is one of the main venues for the 2014 World Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава Ice-Hockey Championship. The Republican Olympic Equestrian Sports Centre “Ratomka” and the Olympic Camp “Staiki” have won recognition of both Belarusian and foreign athletes.
Belarusian budget allocates funds for promoting physical education and sports.1 To improve the health of Belarusian people the government provides fee-based services Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава.2 At the same time handicapped children under 16 and orphans, the disabled children are granted such services free of charge.3
The development of sports among the disabled is an important means of their social adaptation. Belarusian disabled athletes take part in many international competitions including Olympic Games and demonstrate Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава top performance.
The state also focuses much attention on the development of professional sports. The country has an excellent record at the Olympic Games. For the first time Belarusian athletes participated in the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki as members of the USSR team. The first Olympic medal (silver) was won by hammer Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава thrower Mikhail Krivonosov in 1956. The first Olympic gold medals of Belarusian athletes were presented to canoeists L.Geishtor and S.Macanenko in 1960 inRome. The first independent Belarus team took part in the 1994 Winter Olympic Games in Lillehammer and won two silver medals.
Present-day Belarus is rich in sports Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава talents. The Republic is proud of Al.Medved (a three-time Olympic champion), V.Schcherbo (a six-time Olympic champion), Ye.Khodotovich-Karsten (a many-time World and European champion) and others. At the 2008 Bejing Olympics Belarus won 19 medals including four gold ones. The team was most successful in athletics Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава, canoeing and weight-lifting. The participants of the 2010 Winter Olympic Games A.Grishin, S.Novikov and D.Domrachyova brought home three Olympic medals (gold, silver and bronze) in freestyle aerials, men’s and women’s biathlon.
Belarusian people try to keep themselves in good physical condition Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава. More and more people are involved in regular sports exercises.
1. Belarusian budget allocates funds for promoting physical education and sports
Бюджет Беларуси выделяет средства для развития физического воспита-
ния и спорта.
2. ….providesfee-basedservices … - обеспечивает оказание платных услуг…
3. …are granted such services free of charge… –… получаюттакиеуслугибесплатно…
Ex. 1. Replace the Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава following Russian words and word combinations with their equivalents from the above text:
coдействовать здоровому стилю жизни, независящая ветвь экономики, управленческая структура, широкие массы, спортивный зал, не иметь аналогов, Центр олимпийской подготовки по конному спорту, захватить признание, выделять фонды, содействие физическому воспитанию и спорту.
Ex. 2. Fill in the Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава gaps with the words from the word-box below and translate the sentences into Russian:
|venue, free, sporting facilities, canoeing, healthy lifestyle, achievements, disabled, branch of economy, adaptation, gymnasiums|
1. There are a lot of world-class … in Belarus.
2. International sporting …. of Belarusian athletes are rather high.
3. Minsk-Arena is the main Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава … for the 2014World Ice-Hockey Championship.
4. Belarusian … and rowing teams are the leaders of the world rowing.
5. … athletes actively participate in sports and demonstrate top
6. More and more Belarusians are involved in regular sports activities and lead
7. Physical education and спорт form an independent …
8. Belarusian people have at their disposal numerous Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава …, athletic centres, swimming-pools and football fields.
9. The Belarusian government provides … services to improve the health of Belarusian people.
10. Sports and physical exercises are important means of social … of the disabled people in Belarus.
Ex. 3. Complete the following statements. Choose one of the alternatives and translate Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава the sentences:
|1. One of the best priorities of Belaru- sian people is … 2. Even small and medium Belarusian towns have their own… 3.Belarus develops over sports… 4. The most popular спорт in Belarus is… 5. A multi-use indoor Minsk-Arena will be the venue for… 6. Belarusian professional спорт gets funds from Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава … 7. Belarusian disabled people take up sports because it is…||TV watching healthy lifestyle gardening concert halls sporting educational institutions training facilities ice-hockey snooker darts the 2014 World Gymnastics Championship the 2014 World Ice Hockey Championship the 2014 World Weight-Lifting Championship the public structures the budget the participants a financial source an important means Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава of their social adaptation a means of education|
Ex. 4. Look through the text and find theexamples of the superlative degree of adjectives. Translate the sentences with them into Russian.
Ex. 5. Write down the extensive answers to the following questions.
1. Do sports and physical education form an independent Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава branch of economy in Belarus?
2. What is the development of sports and physical education in Belarus reflected in?
3. How many sports and games are played in Belarus? What are they?
4. What world-class training facilities are there in Belarus?
5. How are sports and physical education financed in Belarus Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава?
6. What kinds of health-improving services are offered in Belarus?
7. How is professional спорт developed in Belarus?
8. What is the Olympic medals record of the independent Belarus?
Task 2. Check if these words and word combinations are known to you. If not,
try to memorize them:
yachting n парусныйспорт, яхтспорт
vessel n судно
authority n Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава власть
code of play правилаигры (регламент)
urbanlife городская жизнь
unitev соединять воединыжды
registeredsportsclub зарегистрированный спортивный клуб
“wild” adj. «дикий»
encourage v поощрять
Task 3. Read Text 3В to know the history of sports in Belarus.
Text 3 B. Belarusian Sporting Traditions
Belarusian people had practised sports and games for centuries. Alongside the games of Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава a competitive nature simulating labour activities there were early versions of modern sports like wrestling, archery, running, jumping, riding. Teaching sports and games in Belarus was closely connected with economical and political changes of the early 1700s when the first public schools and colleges were opened in Mogilyov and Vitebsk Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава. Dances or “body movements” were part of the 18th-century public-school curriculum.
The18th century became a decisive period in the development of physical activities in our country. The first bicycle appeared in Vitebsk in the late 1870s. In 1894 about 70 cyclists founded a club of cycling tourism Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава. By 1901 there were cycling clubs in six major Belarusian towns. In 1895 Belarusian cyclist N.F. Devochko became the winner of the international cycling tour Peterburg-Moscow with they strongest cyclists from France, Germany and Holland participating. In 1896 he became the champion of Great Britain in cycling. Sailing, an ancestor of Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава modern yachting, became very prestigious. In 1898 the first sailing club was founded in Vitebsk by the owners of sailing vessels.
During this period the authorities played a small part in the organization of competitive спорт in the country. Most of the initiatives came from the member-clubs and associations Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава. But several dozens of sports clubs couldn’t solve the problem of physical education in the country.
After the 1905-1907 revolution the governing bodies began to develop gymnastics and sports more actively. They believed that sports activities would be more interesting for students, workers and soldiers than political Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава struggle. In 1910s sports societies “Sokol”, “Makkabi” and “Sanitas” were founded in Minsk where athletes practised mostly lifting. Football and athletics clubs appeared at that time too. Football was gaining popularity and in 1911 the first code of play was drawn up in Mogilyov. It enabled Mogilyov football team to compete Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава with others from all over Belarus and played a big role in promoting football in Belarus. The codified game, requiring limited amount of time and space1 suited well the urban life. Спорт in turn united players, fans and spectators.
By 1915 there were about 70 registered sports clubs and societies in Belarus Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава with more than 2.500 members. There were also some “wild” teams and clubs in Minsk, Gomel, Vitebsk, Borisov, Krichev etc.
Belarus was badly supplied with sports facilities. There were only some sports grounds called “tracks” and some primitive football fields. The governing bodies didn’t fund спорт Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава. Nevertheless even under such conditions Belarus produced sports talents. Weight-lifters A.Alexandrovich, I.Solonevich, wrestler N.Zuev, track-and-field athlete A.Yesmanovich were among the winners of the 2nd All-Russia Olympiade held in 1914.
After the 1917 revolution with the formation of the ByelorussianSovietSocialistRepublic the attention of the government to Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава the development of physical culture and спорт began to grow. They believed that physical culture and спорт not only play a major role in the harmonious development of a person but are also necessary for the labour and defence of a nation and strongly encouraged participation in спорт.
Physical Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава education became a compulsory subject for all types of schools. In March 1931 the GTOprogramme which is translated as “I Am Ready for Labourand Defence” was developed. It was specially designed for children from ten to those over sixty years of age. The government provided facilities, equipment and Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава coaching free of charge. Some sports boarding schools and specialized sports schools for children appeared, numerous swimming- pools, gyms and playing fields were built in the republic. Various competitions began to be held practically every day where our athletes perfected their performing skills.
1 …limited amount of time and space… - ограниченноевремяиполедляигры
Post Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава-reading exercises
Ex. 1. Find in the text the paragraphs describing:
– the first sporting traditions in Belarus;
– the first sporting structures in Belarus;
– the first code of play in Belarus;
– the first outstanding Belarusian athletes.
Es. 2. Choose any two paragraphs from the text and translate them into Russian in Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава written form.
Ex. 3. Write questions to the following answers:
– In ancient time Belarusian people practised sports simulating labour activities.
– Teaching sports and games in Belarus began with the appearance of public schools and colleges.
– In 1895 Belarusian cyclist M.Devochko became the winner of the international cycling tour Peterburg – Moscow Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава.
– Most of the first sports clubs in Belarus were private.
– After the 1905-1907 revolution the governing authorities began to develop sports to divert (отвлечь) young people from political struggle.
– In Belarus the first code of play appeared in football.
– By 1915 there were about 70 registered sports clubs in Belarus.
– The GTOprogramme was specially designed Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава for people aged from ten to
– over sixty.
Ex. 4. Read the statements below and agree to them saying “That’s right” or
disagree saying “That’s wrong”, correctthe mistakes.
– The first competitive sports and games in Belarus simulated dancing activities.
– The 18th century was a decisive period in the development of Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава sports and games in Belarus.
– The first sports clubs were organized in football.
– Before the revolution the authorities played an important part in the development of competitive спорт in Belarus.
– The problem of physical education was practically solved due to several dozens of sports clubs that Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава appeared in Belarus.
– The first code of play in Belarus was worked out in volleyball.
– Belarus was well supplied with sports facilities.
– Already in the early 1900s Belarus produced a number of sports talents.
Ex. 5. Write your comments on the role of the governing bodies in the development of sports in Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава Belarus.
Task 4. Learn the following sporting terms you will come across in Text 3 C:
physical culture and health improvement centre физкультурно-оздоровительный
workoutn тренировочное занятие
attendworkouts посещать тренировки
masterv овладевать, улучшать
rifleshootingn стрельба из винтовки
relayraces соревнования в эстафете (в л/атлетике, лыжах, плавании)
round-the-yearcompetitions круглогодичные соревнования
Task 5. Skim Text 3 С to understand Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава how a grass-root спорт is developed in Belarus. Time your reading. It is good if you can read it for 5 minutes (70 words per minute).
Text 3 С. Sports for All in Belarus
Some would say that people in Belarus today are more devoted to sports and physical activities Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава than ever before. Certainly the number of sports and recreational activities offered to both participants and spectators is big for such a small country.
During the last years the opportunities for participation in sports have extended due to the adopted national strategy. People of different social status, age and abilities take Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава up sports. The support of top-class athletes by the governing bodies is essential. At the grass-root level sports facilities and opportunities are provided for people who want to keep fit, be strong and healthy.
Several physical culture and health improvement facilities have appeared in Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава Minsk lately. People willingly exercise sports in various gyms throughout the city under the supervision of experienced instructors.1 The sports center “Pervomaiski”, for instance, comprises two bodybuilding gyms, an aerobics hall, massage and sun parlours and a sauna. People, both adult and children, attend workouts at any of these Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава facilities. Children master the basics of acrobatics and dance. Highly qualified instructors work here. Weight-lifting and bodybuilding are taught by the European and World champions in power-lifting. The centre offers various services and flexible pricing.2
Sports activities and healthy lifestyle are actively promoted at Belarusian industrial enterprises.3 The Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава employees of Baranovichi “Atlant” Ltd. take part in the round-the-year competitions in 13 sports events including volleyball, mini-soccer, table tennis, billiards, darts, checkers, chess, weight-lifting, arm-wrestling, track-and-field athletics, rifle shooting, combined events and relay races. Summer tournament is usually held at the lakeGat. The Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава winners get money bonuses.4 At the end of the year the best division is awarded a fitness machine or any other sports equipment.
Belarus is proud of its sporting achievements but there is much more that can and must be done to reveal its people’s potential. One way to Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава ensure this is Sports for All.
1 … under the supervision of experienced instructors- … поднаблюдениемопытныхинструкторов…
2 The center offers various services and flexible pricing - Центрпредлагаетразно- образныеуслугиигибкиецены.
3 … areactivelypromotedatBelarusianindustrialenterprises - … активноразвиваютсянаБелорусскихпромышленныхпредприятиях
4Thewinnersgetmoneybonuses. - Фавориты получают валютное вознаграждение.
Ex. 1. Complete in written form the statements with information corresponding to the contents of the text:
1. Today Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава people in Belarus are more devoted to …
2. People of different social status …
3. People who want to keep fit, be strong and healthy ……
4. Several physical culture and health improvement facilities …
5. People both adult and children, ….
6. Highly qualified instructors ….
7. Sports activities and healthy lifestyle are actively promoted at Text 1D. Sport in My Life 8 глава ….
8. The employees of Baranovichi “Atlant” Ltd. take part in ….
9. The best division is awarded ….