|1.||Physical activity and спорт support ………. initiative.||personal|
|2.||Physical education has become a compulsory subject for ……….||secondary schools|
|all types of schools|
|3.||Active participation of the population annually produces………in savings.||hundreds|
|4.||The participation of citizens in physical activity is………forsociety.||unprofitable|
|5.||Regular participation in physical activity Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава ………sickness expenses.||increases|
|6.||Regular participation in physical activity………early retirement due to illness.||causes|
|7.||Спорт has ……. on everything people do.||little influence|
|8.||People often ………about sports.||forget|
|9.||Sports provide entertainment for people ……….||in separate countries|
|throughout Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава the world|
Ex.4. Translate the following text paying attention to the forms of the verbs.
The greatest English romantic poet Byron loved to swim more than anything else. While studying at Cambridge he dived five metres into the water and picked up objects from the bottom Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава. He had only written a few ballads and waiting for his poetry acclamation he tried to reach fame as a swimmer. Several times a day he swam across the Thames.
At his castle in Newstead Byron built the first indoor swimming pool in the British Isles. It was in the Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава castle’s cellars and the poet swam for hours without tiring.
Byron wrote: “I am an excellent swimmer, a decent rider and was sufficient of fencing – particularly of the broadsward”.
Byron twice tried to swim across the Dardanelles strait.
dive прыгать в воду, нырять
pick up собирать (подымать)
castle Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава зáмок
broadsward широкий клинок.
Ex.5. Look through Text 1A and find nouns мейд from verbs by adding -ment, -ion, -ation,-ition.
Ex.6. Write down the extensive answers to the following questions to produce the topic “Physical activity and спорт in the society”.
1. What impact Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава do physical activity and sports have on the society?
2. How do physical activity and спорт influence the development of children and adolescents?
3. Is physical education a compulsory subject for all types of schools?
4. How do physical activity and спорт support the economy?
5. How does the government further Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава and maintain the possibilities for physical activity and sports participation?
6. Where is citizens’ participation in physical activitiesprofitable?
7. What influence does спорт have on everything people do?
8. Do physical activity and sports constitute an essential part of the world’s culture?
9. Do sports provide entertainment for people?
10. Do physical activity and sports Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава mould a person?
11.What role do physical activity and спорт play in your life?
Task 2. Check if these words and word combinations are known to you. If not, try to memorize them:
promoter n промоутер
degenerative process дегенеративный процесс
human body человеческий организм
endurance n выносливость
cycling n велоспорт
beneficial a нужный
disorder n нарушение, растройство
heart Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава n сердечко
hypertensive disorders n нарушениеартериального давления
strength exercises силовые упражнения
mobility exercises двигательные упражнения
musculoskeletal a костно-мышечный
premature a ранний (ранешний)
jog n бег трусцой
physical working ability физическая работоспособность
suitable a подходящий
oxygen uptake потребление кислорода
be susceptible быть подверженным
hypodynamia n гиподинамия
neglect v игнорировать
cite v ссылаться
brace n ортопедический аппарат, фиксирующая скоба
Task 3. Read Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава Text 1B to know the role physical activity and спорт play in the human life.
Text 1B. Physical Activity and Sports inthe Human Life
The significance of physical activity and спорт as a promoter of health was recognized very early. They make contribution to the battle against disease and degenerative processes Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава in the human body.
Regular physical exercise performed in accordance with well defined rules can greatly improve the functioning of various body systems. Sometimes they are more effective than medicine.
Training, especially endurance training (running, cross-country skiing, swimming, cycling) has direct beneficial effect on the heart. The Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава heart works more efficiently and is less stressed. Long-term endurance training of moderate intensity has a beneficial effect on various forms of hypertension and hypertensive disorders.
Regular strength and mobility exercises are also beneficial to health, especially to musculoskeletal system. They can prevent the premature appearance of postural Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава defects.
According to the investigation, 78 of 1,000 men over 35 years of age are saved from coronary heart disease if they jog regularly five times a weak during a period of 30 minutes. In addition a total of 1,138 days of quality lifetime is gained.
If maintaining functional capacity could prevent 100 persons of working age Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава from early retiring, society would have saved 10-20 million US dollars.
After people reach 45 years of age, they can lose 25per cent of their physical working ability in five years, or they can increase it by 25per cent in a few years if they exercise regularly in a suitable type Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава of physical activity.
If older people improve their oxygen uptake by 20 per cent, they are able to live on their own eight to nine years longer. In addition older people who are in good condition are able to live independently almost until death.
Today man and women of the Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава most diverse occupations are susceptible to hypodynamia, the disease of the age. Numerous studies make it clear that the only way to overcome hypodynamia is by training the body, by daily physical recreation or спорт. Whoever neglects, this will very soon experience the symptoms of hypodynamia: first, barely noticeable functional Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава disturbances1 (weight gain, rapid tiring, headaches, unpleasant sensations in the region of the heart2), then shortness of breath, palpitations of the heart occasioned by insignificant physical strain, and, finally, irreversible changes in the body3.
Physical activity and спорт occupy a special place in rehabilitation programmes.
We can cite many Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава cases in which physical activity and спорт restored health and returned people to a full and active life.
For Wilma Rudolph (USA), the struggle for life began as a premature baby. She was 2.2kg at birth. Her childhood was difficult. She was one of eighteen brothers and sisters Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава in a very poor family. After a series of illnesses she lost the use of her left leg. She had to wear a legbrace and was unable to walk. Wilma had spirit and determination and when she got a little older her brace was replaced with a Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава special medical shoe. Wilma continued to walk and walk and walk, faster and faster. At the age of 11, to her mother’s amazement, she threw away her brace and her special shoe to play basketball. By 16 she was not only a star in basketball, but also in track.Atthe 1960 Olympics she was Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава the star winning gold medals in the 100m, 200m and 4x100m relay races. Until her death in 1993, Wilma continued to tell students about how physical activity and спорт had helped her become a happy married woman, mother and successful business person.
Physical activity and спорт play the decisive Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава role in all-sided and harmonious development of a person. The surest way to keep fit is to go in for спорт all the life.
1functionaldisturbance – функциональное нарушение;
2weight gain, rapid tiring, headaches, unpleasant sensations in the region of the heart – излишнийвес, быстраяутомляемость, головныеболи, неприятныеощущениявобластисердца;
3shortness of Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава breath, palpitations of the heart occasioned by insignificant physical strain, and, finally, irreversible changes in the body –одышка, сердцебиениедажепринезначительныхнагрузках, и, вкоечномитоге, необратимыеизмененияворганизме.
Ex.1. Find in the text the paragraphs describing:
- the contribution of physical activity and sportto the battle against disease;
- the beneficial effect training Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава has on the heart;
- the beneficial effect long-term endurance training has on various forms of hypertension;
- the beneficial effect of strength and mobility exercises;
- the life the older people in good physical condition are able to live;
- the effect of physical activity and спорт in rehabilitation programmes.
Ex.2. Choose any Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава two paragraphs from the text 1B and translate them into Russian in written form.
Ex.3. Write questions to the following answers:
1. The significance of physical activity and спорт as a promoter of health is great.
2. Sometimes physical activity and спорт are more effective than medicine.
3. Strength and mobility exercises prevent Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава the premature appearance of postural defects.
4. Endurance training has direct beneficial effect on the heart.
5. Training methods occupy a special place in rehabilitation programmes.
Ex.4. Read the statements below and agree to them saying “That’s right” or disagree saying “That’s wrong” and correct the mistakes.
1. Regular Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава physical exercises are sometimes more effective than medicine.
2. Regular physical exercise performed in accordance with well defined rules cannot greatly improve the functioning of various body systems.
3. Hypodynamia is the desease of the age.
4. For Wilma Rudolf, the struggle for life began at the age of ten.
5. After a Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава series of illnesses she lost the use of her right leg.
6. She had to wear a legbrace but was able to walk.
7. At the age 12 she threw away her brace and shoe to play volleyball.
8. By 16 she was not only a star in basketball, but also in Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава track.
9. At the 1960 Olympics she won silver medals.
10. Wilma Rudolph died in 1995.
Ex.5. Write your comments on the role of physical activity and спорт in the human life.
Task 4. Learn the following medical terms you will come across in Text 1C.
|body n torso n limb n forehead n eyebrow n eyelash Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава n cheek n lip n chin n neck n chestn shouldern blade n waistn hipn thighn calfn kneen shin n heel n sole n instepn ball n toe n upperarm n elbow n forearm n wrist n joint n palm n finger n cell n brain n Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава tissue n lung n abdomen n stomachn kidney n urinary bladder gland n skull n spinal cord rib n ligament n tendon n contract v sprain v ankle n skin n||тело, организм туловище конечность лоб бровь ресничка щека губа подбородок шейка грудь плечо лопатка талия бедро, поясница Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава бедро икра колено голень пятка подошва подъем подушка пальца палец (на ноге) плечо локоть предплечье запястье сустав ладонь палец на руке клеточка мозг ткань легкое животик желудок почка мочевой пузырь железа череп спинной мозг ребро связка сухожилия сокращать растянуть щиколотка кожа|
Task 5. Skim Text 1C to understand how the human body is Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава built. Time your reading. It is good if you can read it for ten minutes (70 words per minute).
Text 1 С. Human Body
Physical education teachers and coaches need to know how the human body is built. The human body can perform amazing acts of strength and grace.
People sometimes call Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава the human body a machine – the most wonderful one ever built. Of course, the human body is not a machine. But it can be compared to one in many ways. Like a machine, the body is мейд up of many parts. The main parts of it are a head Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава, a torso and limbs.
The forehead, eyes, eyelashes, nose, mouth, cheeks and chin make the face. We see with eyes and hear with ears.
The neck joins the head to the torso.
The main parts of the torso are the chest, the shoulders, the blades, the Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава back, the waist and hips. The leg consists of a thigh, a calf, a knee, a shinand a foot. The foot in its turn consists of a heel, a sole, an instep, a ball and toes.
The arm consists of an upper arm, an elbow, a forearm and a Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава хэнд. The wrist is the joint which unites the arm with the хэнд.
The хэнд consists of a palm, a back of the хэнд and five fingers.
Each part of the body, like each part of a machine, does special jobs. But all the parts work together and so make the Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава body or the machine run smoothly. Also like a machine, the body needs energy to work. In such a machine as a car, the energy comes from petrol. In the body, it comes from food and oxygen.
Although the human body can be compared to a machine, it is Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава far more amazing than any machine. It can do things that no machine can do. For example, the body can grow. The body starts out as one cell. In time, this tiny cell develops into a body consisting of trillions of cells.
The most remarkable part of the Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава human body is the brain. The human brain is so highly developed that it makes people different from all other living things. Their magnificent brain makes people able to think.
Each kind of cell has special features and jobs. Cells of the same type form tissues. The body has four chief Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава kinds of tissues: connective, epithelial, muscle and nervous tissue.
A human has organs. Every organ consists of two or more kinds of tissues joined into one structure that has a certain task.
The skin is the largest outer organ of the body. If the skin of a Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава 68-kilogram person was spread out flat, it would cover about 2 square metres.
The main human internal organs are: a heart, lungs, a stomach, kidneys, a urinary bladder, glands.
Groups of organs form organ systems. Each organ system carries out a major activity in the body.The skeleton forms a Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава strong framework that supports the body. It also helps protect the internal organs. For example, the brain is shielded by the skull, the spinal cord by the spinal column, and the heart and lungs by the ribs. The skeleton system includes more then 200 bones.
The skeleton works together with Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава the muscles in enabling the body to move.
Ligaments and tendons consist of connective tissue. Ligaments connect one bone to another. Tendons connect a muscle to a bone. When the muscle contracts, the tendon pulls the bone to which it is attached.
Every part of human body and organ has Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава its own duty which it performs without difficulty as long as the human takes care of his (her) health.
If we are not careful enough we may sprain an ankle, pull a muscle, break an arm or a leg, etc.
Ex.1. Continue the list of the Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава main parts of:
human body: head, …
face: eyes, …
torso: chest, …
leg: foot, …
arm: elbow, …
хэнд: finger, …
Ex.2. Match the name of the organ on the left with its duty on the right.
|1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.||skin brain heart lungs stomach kidneys urinary bladder||1.||makes people able to think|
|2.||is a powerful pump Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава|
|3.||are organs of breathing|
|4.||covers the human body|
|5.||removes various wastes from the blood andflushes them from the body|
|6.||produces an acid and enzyme that break downmuch of the food|
|7.||is a hollow storage organ|
Ex.3. How much of the picture can you label without looking at the list of Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава words.
Ex.4. Find 30 parts of the human body in the following chart (horizontally,vertically or diagonally).
|C||F||O||O||T||Z||M||E||Q||W||O||T||abdomen ankle arm body cheek chest chin ear elbow eyebrow||eyes face finger foot forehead хэнд hip heel lip Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава nose||palm rib shoulder skin thigh tissue toe torso wrist waist|
|H Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава||E||Y||E||B||R||O||W||B||T||U||U|
|Y||G||L Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава||I||P||O||S||P||Q||A||R||E|
Ex.5. Complete in written form the statements with information corresponding to the contents of the text:
1. Physical education teachers and coaches need to know … .
2. People sometimes call Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава the human body … .
3. Like a machine the body is мейд up … .
4. The main parts of the body are мейд up … .
5. The main parts of the torso are … .
6. The leg consists of … .
7. The foot consists of … .
8. The arm consists of … .
9. The хэнд consists of … .
10. The most remarkable part of the human Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава body is … .
11. A human has … .
12. The skin is the largest outer … .
13. The main human internal organs are … .
14. The skeleton forms a strong framework … .
15. Ligaments connect … .
16. Tendons connect … .
17. Every part of human body and organ has its own … .
18. If we are not careful enough we may … .
Ex.6. Look through the text once Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава more and write why it is necessary for physical education teachers and coaches to know how the human body is built.
Task 2. Check if these words and word combinations from Text 1D are known to you. If not, try to memorize them.
|compulsory a competition n syllabus Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава n master v fundamentals n extracurricularsports group student of extra-mural education syn. correspondent student study by correspondence lecture schedule tutorial n estimate students’ knowledge course paper examination session take exams credit test||неотклонимый соревнование учебныйплан улучшать базы внеклассныеспортивнаясекция студентзаочнойформыобучения учитьсязаочно расписание лекций консультация оценивать уровень познаний студента курсовая работа Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава экзаменационная сессия сдавать экзамены зачет|
Task 3. Read Text1Dtofindanswersto the questions given before the paragraph.
Text 1D. Спорт in My Life
1. What must PE teachers know?
Speaking about my спорт biography I think back to my school years as the beginning of my sporting career. My road to спорт Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава started from the school gymnasium.
The PE lessons are compulsory for all the students (except those whohave problems with health). The schoolchildren are coached by PE teachers whose standards are high. They know the theory of спорт and can solve problems related to the training process: they know how Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава to dose physical loads1, organize competitions, etc.
Most PE teachers are thegraduatesofBelarusian state university of physical culture,departments of physical education of regional universities, orspecialized colleges.
2. What is the instruction in physical education based on?
Classes are taught according to the syllabus with an obligatory minimum of theory and Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава practice.Instruction in physical culture is based on mastering the fundamentals of athletics2, gymnastics, skiing; swimming and sporting games. Members of extracurricularsports groups not only take part in the school competitions but are included in school teams to participate in district, city and republican tournaments. The most gifted youngsters have Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава an opportunity of being coached in their spare time in special sports schools.
3. What were your results in спорт?
That was my PE teacher who brought me to спорт. As the most schoolchildren of our school I was fond of sports and went in for track-and-field Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава athletics. My favourite event3 was sprint. At first my performance level4was not very high but I tried to improve it and practised5 hard. Soon a good coach noticed me and I started to attend my practices willingly. I got acquainted with the fundamentals of спорт. In a while I Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава demonstrated good performance in sprint. Certainly, they were not anything near records.But I was so fond of спорт that I continued to go in for it.
Athletes are ranked6 as third, second or first class, or awarded the titles7 of Candidate Master of Sports8, Master of Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава Sports9, Master of Sports International Class10 and Merited Master of Sports11. Having participated in competitions,first Iqualified12for the third, then the second and the first sports categories13.
4. What University didyou enter?
When at school I decided to become a PE teacheror a coach. So after completing school I entered the Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава Belarusian state university of physical culture. Now I am a student of extra-mural education. It is interesting for me to study by correspondence.
5. How are the students taught by correspondence?
At the beginning of each academic year correspondent students get theirlecture schedule.They are alsoprovided with tutorials Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава,educational instructions and recommended literature on all subjects.
The teachersestimate these students’ knowledge by checking their written tests and course papers.
Two times a year an examination session takes place. During this period the students attend lectures on the main topics of the subjects and have practice, take Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава exams and credit tests. Besidestheyare offered lectures on subjects of the next academic year.
At present I am a part-time coach assistant14 at the local recreationcentre. But my dream is to become a highly skilled specialist in physical culture and sports to be able to train the national team Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава as a head coach in the future.
1 to dose physical loads – дозироватьфизическиенагрузки;
2athletics – легкая атлетика;
syn. track-and-field athletics
3event – дисциплина, видспорта;
4 performancelevel – уровень мастерства;
5 practise – трениться
6 rank – систематизировать, ranking - спортивный разряд
7awardthetitle – присуждать звание;
8CandidateMasterofSports – кандидатвмастераспорта;
9 Master of Sports – мастерспорта;
10MasterofSportsInternationalClass – мастерспортамеждународногокласса;
11 Merited Master of Sports – заслуженныймастерспорта;
12 qualify – зд. выполнитьнормынаразряд Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава;
13 sportscategory – спортивныйразряд;
14part-timecoachassistant – ассистент тренера, работающий неполный рабочий денек.
Task 1. Find a key sentence in each paragraph.
Task 2. Entitle each paragraph. You will have the plan for the topic “My спорт biography”.
Task 3. Write your sports biography.
Task 4. Write a story about the role of спорт Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава in any famous athlete’s biography.
Task 5. Look through Texts A, B, C, D again. Write down the answers to the following questions to form the topic “Спорт in my life”.
1. What impact do physical activity and спорт have on people and the society?
2. What role do physical activity Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава and спорт play in your life?
3. When and where were you born?
4. When did your sporting career begin?
5. How were your PE lessons organized?
6. Who brought you to спорт?
7. What is your спорт?
8. Who is your coach?
9. How are athletes ranked?
10. What sports title or ranking do Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава you have?
11. What university did you enter and when?
12. Do you study by correspondence?
13. How are correspondent students taught?
14. What are your plans for the future?
Check Up Your Skills
1. Put the words and word combinations in one of the boxes below:
|hypodynamia; endurance training; degenerative processes; weight gain; strength exercises; headache; hypertension Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава; shortness of breath; cycling; mobility; exercises; physical; recreation; jogging; coronary; heart disease; postural defects; cross-country; skiing|
|Health disorders||Physical activities|
II. Match the nouns to the verbs and translate the word combinations:
|A D C D E F||prevent have decrease promote mould attend||1. sickness expenses 2. person 3. a Text 1D. Sport in My Life 3 глава disease 4. physical activity/health 5. an impact (on) 6. sporting events|
III. Complete in the chart with the correct form of the verb.
|Indefinite||Past Tense||Past Partisiple|