Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING

(Based on http://ec.europa.eu/languages/language-teaching/content-and-language-integrated-learning_en.htm)

According to the recent research, one of the most effective methods of ESL instruction is the content-based approach, where language instruction is integrated with the content areas. Rather than developing an ESL program Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING that is focused on the language needed for social interactions or the structure of language, this method incorporates language into the context of academic content. The core curriculum is the basis for teaching language. Instructors фокус on the key principles and concepts and use visuals, hands-on activities, simpler language Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING, adapted readings, graphic organizers, and so forth to help make the most important academic content comprehensible. Thus, language skills develop as students work on their special subjects: math, social studies, science or language arts at their appropriate levels.

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) involves teaching a curricular Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING subject through the medium of a language other than that normally used. The subject can be entirely unrelated to language learning, such as history lessons being taught in English in a school in Spain. CLIL is taking place and has been found to be effective in all sectors of Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING education from primary through adult and higher education. Its success has been growing over the past 10 years and continues to do so.

Teachers working with CLIL are specialists in their own discipline rather than traditional language teachers. They are usually fluent speakers of the target language, bilingual or Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING native speakers. In many institutions language teachers work in partnership with other departments to offer CLIL in various subjects. The key issue is that the learner is gaining new knowledge about the 'non-language' subject while encountering, using and learning the foreign language. The methodologies and approaches used are Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING often linked to the subject area with the content leading the activities.

If you teach EMI (English as a Medium of Instruction), LAC (Language Across the Curriculum), CBI (Content-based Instruction) or CBLT (Content-based Language Teaching; if you work in Bilingual Education; if you’re a subject teacher working through Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING the medium of a foreign language, or a language teacher bringing in content into your English lesson, you work within the area of Content and Language Integrated Learning.

“CLIL refers to situations where subjects, or parts of subjects, are taught through a foreign language with dual-focused aims, namely Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING the learning of content, and the simultaneous learning of a foreign language”. “It [CLIL] provides exposure to the language without requiring extra time in the curriculum“. (Marsh, D. 2002. Content and Language Integrated Learning: The European Dimension – Actions, Trends and Foresight Potential).

This would seem a good reason as any Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING to promote an approach with a twin set of objectives. One of these objectives is clearly educational (to learn subject content and a foreign language) and the other is administrative. Since educational and administrative needs often fight for space, this seems a good way to promote peace between Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING them. We were told in the European Council Resolution in 1995 that, “...all EU citizens, by the time they leave compulsory schooling, should be able to speak two languages other than the mother tongue”.

Curricula attempting to achieve this aim have been getting more and more desperate in their attempts Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING to find timetabling space. What is the possible answer to this problem? Why, CLIL, of course. Instead of studying Geography in the majority language, do it in a foreign language. As long as it works, the pupils learn the same subject concepts and skills, but increase contact time with the foreign Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING language – crucial consideration in the improvement of attainment levels.

“…an approach to bilingual education in which both curriculum content (such as science or geography) and English are taught together. It differs from simple English-medium education in that the learner is not necessarily expected to have Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING the English proficiency required to cope with the subject before beginning to study“. (Graddol D. English Next, British Council Publications, 2006)

Graddol suggests that a powerful element of CLIL is its role in the improvement of language skills, and that pupils do not necessarily need a particularly high level of foreign language attainment Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING to do their ‘CLIL-ing’. Now this sounds quite radical. Why? Because the teachers would have to adjust their methodology to ensure that the students were understanding the content.

Teachers would not be able to simply ‘transmit’ the content, assuming that their audience understood. They would have Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING to think of other means (group work, tasks, etc) which would result in an increase of the skill-based фокус of the learning.

The educational materials (textbooks) would also have to reflect this approach.
The pupils would be learning language that was more clearly focused on, and related to, the subject Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING matter that they needed to learn.

CLIL is not confined to higher-achieving students. It is not an approach for the elite. It fits in perfectly with a mixed-ability philosophy. Ensuring that students understand the content, reducing teacher-talk, increasing the фокус on skills, influencing Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING publishers to do likewise and getting students to learn language items that are always contextualised, always functionally necessary in the classroom – sound good at any level of curricular discourse. What is CLIL? Well already it looks as if it is something like ‘good practice’, and if we take Graddol at Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING his word, it can be applied across the ability range.

Finally, another quote that extends the scope of CLIL still further: “CLIL is about using languages to learn… It is about installing a ‘hunger to learn’ in the student. It gives opportunity for him/her to think about and Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING develop how s/he communicates in general, even in the first language”. (Marsh, Marsland & Stenberg, 2001)

We can see from the first part of the underlined sections that CLIL views language as a ‘vehicle’, not simply as an entity in itself. This is a central component of the CLIL Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING package. David Graddol said something similar too in his book English Next, when he talked about the world now viewing English not so much as a language but as a core skill. This is a crucial observation, and it lies at the heart of the educational and social change Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING that has taken place since the development of the Internet and the parallel growth of globalisation. As English becomes an essential add-on to any curricular programme around the world, it is moving into a position where it becomes a subject that pupils learn in order to do something Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING else.

CLIL, with its ‘dual-focused’ aims, encapsulates perfectly this post-modern, utilitarian view of the English language. Liberal educationalists may not agree with it, but for the time being it is here to stay. In its defence, CLIL also seems to contribute to the buzz-concept of our Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING times – namely ‘motivation’. Teachers’ forums talk about it endlessly, as do the blurbs on the back of scholastic textbooks and the opening lines of ministerial declarations. Does CLIL install a ‘hunger to learn’ as Marsh et al. claim? If this is true, then we need to know exactly why. We can examine Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING this in subsequent articles, but for now, why should CLIL motivate more than other conventional approaches?

Could it be because:

It provides reasons for learning and improving the foreign language level, because the understanding of the subject contentis compulsory.

It focuses on and assesses the subject content Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING, so the learner is not being assessed on his/her mastery of the Past Simple (for example) but rather his/her ability to use it in the appropriate places.

It gives students a feeling of real achievement. They are coping with, and talking and writing about, complex material in Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING the foreign language.

They are not being asked to discuss ‘vox-pop’ content as in standard language learning textbooks (Pop Stars, Global Warming, My Favourite Auntie) – where the content is used as a slave to illustrate a certain language structure – but because the content is important in itself. In CLIL Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING there is a chance that they are being asked their opinions because the expression of opinions (for example) is a key competence in the syllabus content. This method includes learning situations that provide for the following critical factors:

· Comprehensible input

· Low anxiety for the students

· Many opportunities for interaction and language use

· Meaningful Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING communication and natural language

· Language-learning situations that are fun and motivational

· Development of higher-order thinking skills

UNDERSTANDING THE SUMMARY ORGANIZATION AND EXPLICATION OF KEY FACTS AND IDEAS

Instruction:When writing a summary of the article “Content and language integrated learning” keep in mind that there are four main requirements to be Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING met:

1. The summary should cover the original as a whole.

2. The material should be presented in a neutral fashion.

3. The summary should be a condensed version of the material, presented in your own

words.

4.Do not include anything that does not appear in the original (do not Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING include your own

comments or evaluation.) and be sure to identify your source.

Steps for writing your summary:

1. Organize your notes into an outline which includes main ideas and supporting points but no examples or details (dates, numbers, statistics).

2. Write an introductory paragraph that begins with a frame, including an in-text citation of Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING the source and the author as well as a reporting verb to introduce the main idea.

· ARTICLE: The title

In his/her article (or paper) "____________________,” ______(year)
(title, first letter capitalized) (author's last name) __________________

argues/claims/reports/contends/maintains/states that ____________________________.
(main idea/argument; S /subect/ + V /verb/ + C /complement Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING/)

Example:In her article "Euro-english accents", Researcher Britta Larson Bergstedt (2005) investigates the response of non-native English speakers, specifically, Swedish female students, towards European (female) foreign accents in spoken English..

· BOOK:

In his book “Key aspects of the use of English in Europe” Claude Truchot (2011) illustrates the evolution of language situation and Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING English lingua franca in the countries of the European Union.

· INTERVIEW:

In his interview with the magazine World Englishes (May, 2008)Professor Robert Phillipson (first name, last name) argues that the English language plays the role of the killer of national languages

Reporting Verbs:

Strong argument Neutral Counter argument Suggestion Criticism
argue Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING state refute the claim suggest criticize
claim report argue against recommend
contend explain
maintain discuss
insist illustrate
posit

Other examples of frames:

· According to ___________________ (year), ________________________________________.
(author's last name) (main idea; S + V + C)

· ___________'s article on ______________ (year) discusses the ____________________.
(author's last name) (topic) (main idea; Noun Phrase)

· __________________, in Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING his/her article, "________________" argues that _______________________.
(author's last name, year) (title of article) (main idea; S + V + C)

3. The main idea or argument needs to be included in this first sentence. Then mention the major aspects/factors/reasons that are discussed in the article/lecture. Give a full reference Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING for this citation at the end of the summary.

For a one-paragraph summary, discuss each supporting point in a separate sentence. Give 1-2 explanations for each supporting point, summarizing the information from the original.

For a multi-paragraph summary, discuss each supporting point in a separate paragraph. Introduce it in the Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING first sentence (topic sentence).

Example: According to the recent research, one of the most effective methods of ESL instruction is the content-based approach, where language instruction is integrated with the content areas.

Support your topic sentence with the necessary reasons or arguments raised by the author/lecturer but omit Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING all references to details, such as dates or statistics.

4. Use discourse markers that reflect the organization and controlling idea of the original, for example cause-effect, comparison-contrast, classification, process, chronological order, persuasive argument, etc.

5. In a longer summary, remind your reader that you are paraphrasing by Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING using "reminder phrases," such as

o The author goes on to say that ...

o The article (author) further states that ...

o (Author's last name) also states/maintains/argues that ...

o (Author's last name) also believes that ...

o (Author's last name) concludes that

6. Restate the article’s/paper’s conclusion in one Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING sentence.

7. Give a full reference for the citation (see the example below for the in-text citations in #2). For citing electronic sources, please see Citation of Electronic Resources.


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